Sudan. Another famine hit southern Sudan during the
summer, mainly Bahr al-Ghazal province. According to
Countryaah, the famine was
caused not only by drought but also by the war, which has
increasingly developed into settlements between factions
that broke out of the SPLA guerrilla. Large damage caused a
faction leader's attack at the beginning of the year against
Bahr al-Ghazal's main location Waw, which drove large crowds
of people on the run.
Major international efforts were made for the hungry, but
a significant portion of the supplies were considered to end
up in the fighting groups. In July, SPLA announced a
ceasefire in Bahr al-Ghazal to facilitate aid shipments, and
the government responded with a ceasefire throughout
southern Sudan. However, fighting continued throughout the
year throughout the country.
Disagreement over the definition of "southern Sudan"
caused new peace talks in August between SPLA and the
government to be stranded. An earlier agreement in May on a
future referendum on independence for southern Sudan also
became meaningless as SPLA wants to include areas much
further north than the government agrees. The question of
the application of Islamic law in non-Muslim areas also
remains a seemingly insoluble issue.
A new constitution was adopted in a referendum in May.
The Constitution should make it possible to re-establish
political organizations in Sudan. The voluntary opposition
rejected the law by saying that its real purpose is to
consolidate the Islamic National Congress's power monopoly
behind a democratic facade.
In August, American robots destroyed a factory in
al-Shifa in the province of Khartoum, which according to the
government and several Western sources was the country's
most important pharmaceutical industry. According to the US,
there were produced components in cooperation with the
terrorist suspected Saudi Usama bin Laden for the poison gas
VX. The factory was destroyed as revenge for the terrorist
attacks on US embassies in Nairobi (Kenya) and Dar es-Salaam
(Tanzania), which Usama bin Ladin is suspected to be behind.
Israeli aircraft bombed Yarmouk plant at the end of
October 2012 on the outskirts of Sudan's capital, Khartoum.
Israel would neither deny nor deny the attack, but
characterized the plant as an "Iran-funded weapons factory"
and characterized Sudan as a "terrorist state." Now it was
probably not Sudan bombing Israel, but Israel bombing Sudan.
The attack on the Khartoum plant, 1600km from Israel, was
considered by international observers as a drill operation
prior to a possible Israeli air strike on Iran. Israel last
bombed Sudan in February 2009. In 1998, the United States
bombed an alleged weapons factory in Khartoum, which
subsequently turned out to be a medicine factory.
There were several clashes across the border between
Sudan and South Sudan during 2012. In February, South Sudan
had to suspend its oil production due to disagreement with
Sudan about payment for the oil transported through Sudan.
In September, numerous agreements were signed between the
two countries on trade, oil, security and citizenship, but
despite the agreements, these were not implemented in
concrete initiatives. In the southern part of the country,
the armed conflict between the military and the SPLM-N
continued. In agust, the two parties entered into an
agreement, but the content of the agreement was not
In protest of the 24th anniversary of Bashir's coup on
June 29, 2013, 10,000 people staged a protest demonstration
in Khartoum's sister city of Omdurman during the parole:
"Skid Bashir". The demonstration was monitored by police,
however, who failed to attack it.
Bashir removed the fuel subsidies on September 23, 2013,
prompting more than a doubling of gasoline prices. It
sparked spontaneous protests all over the country, where
people burned down gas stations, police stations and offices
of the ruling party. Security forces responded again with
tear gas, rubber bullets and later sharp shots. The
following weeks, around 175 protesters were killed by police
bullets and several thousands arrested. The government did
not change its policy, but the protests were so severe that
the government was transformed and Bashir replaced his
vice-president with Bakri Hassan Saleh.