Kosovo. During the summer, the tense situation in Kosovo
exploded and violent fighting was fought between Serbian
security forces and Kosovo's liberation army, UCK (Ushtria
Clirimtare e Kosovės).
Following tough international pressure, Kosovo's unofficial
president Ibrahim Rugova signed an agreement with Yugoslav
President Slobodan Milošević in the fall. The agreement
includes that the thousands of people who have escaped the
fighting should be able to return to their homes. However,
there was no indication that Rugova had given up its demand
for full independence for Kosovo and later accession to Albania.
Countryaah, from the mid-1970s until 1989, Kosovo had extensive
self-government, but dissatisfaction grew among the
Albanians, which required the province to become a full
sub-republic in what was then Yugoslavia. Increasingly
violent demonstrations and mining strikes met with increased
violence from the federal authorities, the conflict
escalated and reached a critical point in 1989 when Kosovo was
made a symbol of the Serbian nationalist wave that carried
Slobodan Milošević to power. The same year, Kosovo's autonomy was
restricted and the following year the authorities dissolved
the provincial parliament and according to a new Serbian
constitution, the province was deprived of its autonomy.
Authorities launched a campaign to make Kosovo more Serbian.
E.g. a provision was introduced that tuition in schools
should be in Serbian. Mines were closed, companies were
seized and more and more Serbian security forces and police
began sending to Kosovo. The Albanians responded by establishing
an underground state in the state. Kosovo's parliament, gathered
in secret, adopted a constitution in 1990 under which Kosovo is
an independent republic. In 1992, the Albanians in a secret
election elected a parliament with 130 members and appointed
the party leader of the Kosovo Democratic Alliance, Lidhja
Demokratike e Kosovės (LDK), Ibrahim Rugova, as president.
Rugova received international recognition as the Albanian
leader and the Albanian disappointment was great when Kosovo was
not included in the Dayton Agreement, which ended the war in
Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1995. The frustration among the
Albanians in Kosovo has increased ever since.