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Japan

Yearbook 1998

1998 JapanJapan. According to Countryaah, Japan's financial crisis of 1997 harmed even more victims among politicians and officials during the year. In January, Finance Minister Hiroshi Mitsuzuka resigned following a scandal in his ministry, where over 110 employees were later punished for inappropriate contact with banks and companies. In March, the head of the central bank was replaced for similar reasons. A new state control agency was set up in June to monitor the financial world. Another tug prompted prosecutors to raid Japan's Defense Bureau (Defense Department) in September, where officials were suspected of having been bribed to overlook the overpriced electronics giant NEC charged for military supplies. The deal forced both NEC Chairman Tadahiro Sekimoto and Defense Chief Fukushiro Nukaga to resign.

The weak economy consisted of a record unemployment rate of over 4% in the spring. In April, the "big bang", the government's restructuring of the financial market, was launched, with free currency exchange. Financial support measures did not prevent Prime Minister Ryutaro Hashimoto's Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) from losing the July 12 parliamentary election. The LDP fell from 118 to 103 seats out of 252, the party's lowest figure ever. Keizo Obuchi took over as LDP leader and prime minister.

In October, the LDP and parts of the opposition agreed on a banking reform with the temporary nationalization of the major bank LTCB - a first step towards clean-up among the problem banks. Subsequently, the Obuchi government presented Japan's largest stimulus package to date, equivalent to SEK 1,500 billion. vouchers for families with children and the elderly increase consumption. Through an alliance with the Liberal Party, the LDP secured Parliament's approval.

Russian-Japanese summits in Japan in April and in Russia in November provided environmental agreements but no solution to the dispute over four disputed islands that Soviet troops conquered at the end of the Second World War. Obuchi and President Boris Yeltsin, however, stuck to the plans for a peace treaty by 2000.

War memories also overshadowed other high-profile visits: by South Korean President Kim Dae Jung in October and China's President Jiang Zemin a month later. Both apologized for Japan's aggressive past, and Kim got in writing on Obuchi's "deep regrets" over the occupation of Korea in 1910-45. Jiang was given the same word about Japan's actions in China 1937-45 and oral apology but demanded total formal prayer. However, there was no such thing, and neither Jiang nor Obuchi signed the summit text. US President Bill Clinton visited Tokyo in November.

1998 Japan

The Paleolithic period - also called the Precambrian period - dates back to the history of 10-30,000 years. It was followed by the Neolithic Jomon culture, which lasted until 2-300 BCE and extended to the entire archipelago. It was a hunter and gatherer who developed a refined pottery and manufactured tools of stone and bone. The Jomon culture was changed by the yayoi, who probably joined the archipelago from the continent as a land link still existed over Korea, Tsushima, Soya and Tsugaru Straits. Yayoi introduced the horse and cow, rice cultivation, pottery, weaving and iron tools. Over the years, the two cultures merged.

According to the Chinese chroniclers, the Wo region - in Japanese, Wa - at the beginning of our era was divided into over 100 states, which during the Himito's reign was reduced to about 30. Wa people were divided into classes and paid taxes, the building art was well-developed, existed large markets and a significant exchange of goods took place with the continent.

The Wa people lived in the period 266-413 completely isolated - from the end of the civil war to the consolidation of Yamato as emperor. This was the condition of the unification of the nation, a condition of external expansion, and this was a reality in the late 4th century. In the year 369, Yamato subdued the Korean kingdoms of Paekche, Kaya and Sila and established a basis for dominion over the region. Yamato's rule quickly collapsed again. Partly because of the opposition of the Korean subjects, and partly because of internal contradictions at the court. During this period, 538-552, Buddhism penetrated the country. Initially as an object of curiosity and admiration, for the grandeur of its temples, and because of the magical powers it was accorded.

The imprint of Chinese culture on Japan extends back 1500 years. The most important characteristic is the square division of the earth that still exists today, the scriptural language and the Buddhist religion, which is also influenced by its development in Central Asia, China and Korea. This cultural legacy was characterized by numerous successive adaptations to the climate, the language and the local customs - a kind of Japanization. This was especially true in the 17th and 18th centuries. The phenomenon was especially evident in the architecture and language, which originated from a number of very different local tribes.

The country's first stable capital, Nara, was founded in 710. In the 9th century, tribal chiefs were replaced by a succession court. The aristocracy made Buddhism a dominant force, reinforcing the power of the state. After a series of conflicts, Kammu (781-806) restored imperial independence and moved the capital to Heian (Kyoto). In the new capital, the Fujiwara family consolidated its power and installed in the 9th century a ruler who stood over the emperor himself. With the support of the emperor, in Heian two new Buddhist sects - Tendai and Shingon - developed closer to Japanese culture and made it possible to dispense with Nara's religious hegemony.

The former system of imperial ownership of the land increasingly disintegrated and the land gradually passed into private hands. The members of the aristocracy and religious institutions acquired large tracts of land for which no tax was payable - the sho. The nobles organized their private armies and a new class of rural warriors emerged - the samurai.

Originally local leaders, the Taira and Minamoto clans clashed militarily on numerous occasions in their struggle for power. Taira ruled from 1156 until he was defeated in the Gempei War (1180-85). Shogun - general - Minamoto Yoritomo created the shogunate Kamakura, the first of the military regimes that ruled Japan until 1868.

Kamakura was put to a severe test during the Mongol invasions of 1274 and 1281. The Japanese got help from the great storms - the so-called kamikazes, divine winds - and defeated the aggressors. In the same period, new Buddhist sects emerged such as the pure earth Buddhism, the real pure earth, and loto.

In the early 14th century, the shogunate Kamakura was destroyed. Ruler Go-Daigo asserted his authority - the so-called Kemmu restoration - but shortly after was thrown out of Kyoto and replaced by a puppet ruler of the military clans. Go-Daigo settled in Yoshino and for 56 years there were two parallel imperial court.

 

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